Research Summary

A collection of the latest research on MAPs and minor attractions

Use our dictionary if you come across an unfamiliar term.

Who is a pedophile?

A pedophile is someone who is sexually and/or romantically attracted to prepubescent children. Someone attracted to early-pubescent teenagers is a hebephile and someone attracted to late-pubescent teenagers and young adults is an ephebophile. Anyone could be a pedophile, and because up to 5% of the population is estimated to have pedophilia, it's likely you know at least one. These aren't faceless, middle-aged men on the internet, they're your friends, coworkers, and even your children, since 66% of those attracted to minors are minors themselves when they discover their attractions. Of course, there are pedophiles who abuse children, but these make up a minority of minor-attracted individuals.

In addition to the widespread erroneous belief that all pedophiles are child molesters and vice versa, there are several misconceptions the public holds about pedophiles, the main ones being related to the belief that they are more likely to have psychiatric disorders. While these beliefs are based on research, that research was conducted under the beliefs that all pedophiles are child molesters and all child molesters are pedophiles, both of which have now been proven wrong. Today, it is known that, while pedophiles who are convicted for sexual offenses are more likely to have these issues, non-offending pedophiles are not significantly more likely to have any of the traits stereotypically associated with pedophilia than members of the general population.

Are pedophiles a danger to children?

Society and the media often use the terms "pedophile" and "child molester" interchangeably, causing many to believe that most or all pedophiles are child molesters and that most or all people who commit sexual offences against children are pedophiles. Neither of these beliefs, however, are an accurate reflection of reality. Pedophilia and other minor attractions are simply attractions, and like most people who experience attractions, the majority (up to 85%) of pedophiles do not commit sexual offences. Additionally, studies have consistently found that a minority (potentially as few as a quarter) of people who commit sexual offences against children are pedophiles.

Regardless of whether someone is a pedophile, there are factors that can make someone more likely to commit a sexual offense. Many of these are related to mental or physical health and can be addressed through treatment, which is why research into support for pedophiles and others who are attracted to minors has become a focus in efforts to prevent CSA. To be clear, this is not a claim that all pedophiles need support to avoid offending, but rather that ensuring those at risk of offending have access to support can lower that risk.

The societal stigma surrounding pedophilia can actually increase the risk of pedophiles committing sexual offences. This is because the stigma, when internalized, can lead to increased isolation and lower self-esteem, both of which are known risk factors for sexual violence. Stigma may also cause MAPs to attempt to suppress their attractions, which may result in them becoming stronger. Additionally, internalized stigma also tends to reduce an individual's willingness to seek support for such issues, making it even harder for pedophiles who are at risk of offending to get help. For this reason, many CSA prevention researchers and organizations have begun to focus on sharing factual information about pedophilia to combat the misinformation and fearmongering that perpetuate stigma.

Can adult pedophiles be attracted to and have relationships with adults?

Pedophiles and others who experience attractions to minors can be separated into two categories: exclusive and non-exclusive. Non-exclusive adult pedophiles are those who experience some level of attraction to other adults, and many non-exclusive adult pedophiles are able to engage in sexual and/or romantic relationships with other adults. While exclusive adult pedophiles do not experience sexual or romantic attractions to other adults, they can still form platonic connections with them, and sometimes these are strong enough to facilitate some sort of relationship beyond friendship. These relationships can include a sexual element, although this is often aimed at providing pleasure for a partner.

An important clarification is that pedophiles are not inherently more attracted to "adults who look like children." Though some adults are physically small and may even have less-developed sexual organs, most pedophiles are attracted to a combination of size, age, specific stages of development, and even children's personalities, and it is uncommon for any adult to possess all of those characteristics to a great enough extent to make them legitimately look like a child. While it is certainly possible for non-exclusive pedophiles to be attracted to adults who happen to look younger than their age in some ways, this is not the result of their pedophilic attractions.

What are minor-attracted people (MAPs)?


MAP stands for minor-attracted person, which refers to anyone who experiences sexual and/or romantic attractions to minors. It was coined by mental health experts at B4U-ACT as an umbrella term for nepiophiles, pedophiles, hebephiles, and ephebophiles, and it is now widely used among researchers in both the mental health and CSA prevention fields. Despite popular belief, the term does not reflect an attempt to "rebrand" pedophiles or encourage the inclusion of cishet MAPs in the LGBTQ community.

The MAP Community

While anyone who experiences an attraction to minors is, by definition, a MAP, some are also members of the MAP community, an unofficial network of several different peer support-focused spaces for MAPs. This includes support groups, MAPs doing outreach to help others find support on social media, and even group chats for MAPs on a variety of platforms. The reason for its decentralized nature is that, rather than being centered around a certain group of people or a specific platform, the MAP community revolves around the very concept of peer support and bonding over shared experiences with stigma and attractions. While many people erroneously believe that MAPs forming a community and interacting with each other could result in higher rates of child abuse, experts have spoken out in favor of MAP-focused support groups and social media activism, saying that both play a role in reducing the likelihood of MAPs offending. Unfortunately, many social media (and other) platforms actively interfere with CSA prevention efforts by censoring MAPs and the experts who support them.

MAP Pride

One of the concepts that comes up a lot in discussions about the MAP community and MAPs in general is the idea of MAP pride. While critics and trolls like to point out that "pride" has recently become heavily associated with the LGBTQ community, the term is not intended to imply a link between the two, and some MAPs and experts even consider minor attractions a form of queer identity separate from the LGBTQ community. Overall, the underlying ideas are effectively the same: a marginalized group accepting themselves and their identities, taking pride in their ability to survive and lead a productive life in a world that often opposes their existence, and sharing their stories in the hopes of bringing about a better life for future members of that group.

What challenges do minor-attracted people face?

Mental Health

Due to the prevalence of misinformation about MAPs (most notably the conflation of pedophilia with child molestation), minor-attracted individuals are subjected to extremely high levels of stigma. This can come from peers, family members, and even the media, and often becomes internalized, taking a severe toll on MAPs' mental health. Over 1 in 3 MAPs experience suicidal thoughts, and young MAPs are particularly vulnerable, as the most common age for a MAP to first attempt suicide is just 14 years old.

This stigma even impacts the interactions between MAPs and mental health professionals. A majority of MAPs are interested in seeking some form of professional support, but many are unwilling to do so for fear of being misunderstood and further stigmatized by therapists and other professionals. These fears are not unfounded, as studies have shown that a majority of health professionals wrongly believed mandatory reporting laws required them to report clients who disclosed a sexual attraction to children. In extreme cases, MAPs may even be subjected to conversion therapy, which is known to be ineffective and incredibly harmful. These risks serve as yet another factor preventing MAPs from seeking support, even for issues unrelated to their attractions.


Despite the fact that MAP activism reduces the risk of CSA, many social media platforms have decided to prioritize the PR hassle of "you allow pedophiles on your site!" over the wellbeing of children and ban MAPs and MAP activism. Some have taken this a step further, banning support groups and even medical professionals who try to share factual information about MAPs. This makes it harder for MAPs to find others like them and support resources, increasing the risk of mental health issues, including suicidal thoughts, in a community that is already at a higher risk due to the stigma surrounding their attractions.


Due to the near-universal misunderstanding of minor attractions, MAPs, even non-offending ones, are popular targets for online vigilantes, often referred to as "pedophile hunters" or "anti-MAPs." These groups are associated with illegal actions, harm to innocent "suspects," and false accusations. They also benefit from and perpetuate the stigma surrounding pedophilia and other minor attractions, interfering with legitimate CSA prevention efforts in the process. In short, these groups hide behind the claim that they are "protecting children" while their words and actions harm both children and innocent adults.

You can learn more about online threats to MAPs and allies on our Safety page.

How can I support minor-attracted people?

General Public

Supporting MAPs can mean a lot of different things depending on how much time and effort you want to spend and how involved you want to get. One simple thing that everyone can do is to avoid perpetuating misconceptions and stigma against MAPs. This can be as simple as not using "pedophile" and "child molester" interchangeably or falsely claiming that MAPs are trying to become part of the LGBTQ+ community. You can also reduce your use of stigmatized language by eliminating nonsensical terms like "convicted pedophile" or "illegal attractions" from your vocabulary and by avoiding the use of "pedophile" as an insult. You can also correct others when they make incorrect statements about pedophilia or MAPs, although doing this too often could have social repercussions. Reducing the amount of misinformation and stigmatized language about pedophilia helps MAPs feel more comfortable reaching out for support when they need it and may even make them less likely to need that support in the first place.

If you have the means to do so, consider financially supporting organizations that work to spread accurate information about pedophilia and help MAPs find support. Some good examples are the Prostasia Foundation, B4U-ACT, and the Association for Sexual Abuse Prevention. If you're not able to provide financial support, you can share information about these groups and the resources they provide on your social media accounts or with friends and family members. Even if the content you post isn't related to pedophilia, extending the reach of these groups will help more people see any content they post about pedophilia in the future and may even help MAPs find support. You can also post other content related to pedophilia, such as the resources linked throughout this page or on the MAP Stories section of our homepage.

For those who want to directly support MAPs, engaging with the MAP community is a good way to get involved. Both of the support groups listed on our homepage allow allies, and if you have a social media account that's not linked to your real-life identity, you can always engage with MAP activists by sending them supportive messages or even asking about their experiences in DMs. If you want to get publicly involved, you can correct misinformation and stigmatizing language publicly from an anonymous account where you can also post MAP-related content, including research and support resources.

Friends and Family

Check out our dedicated page for friends and family members of MAPs to learn how to support the MAP in your life.

Mental Health Professionals

Of all the groups that the MAP community needs the support of, therapists and other mental health professionals are probably the most important. Currently, many MAPs cannot access professional mental health services because they simply don't have access to any therapists who are able and willing to provide MAPs with the support they may need. Put simply, more therapists need to take the time to learn how to help MAPs and make their willingness to help MAPs known. Luckily, researchers and organizations like B4U-ACT exist to help with the former, and there are a number of groups that maintain lists of therapists who are able and willing to support MAPs.

Therapist aren't the only group of mental health professionals that MAPs need a greater level of support from. One great example is mental health hotlines, which often lack the guidelines and training of members necessary to adequately support MAPs. Organizations like B4U-ACT would likely be happy to help hotlines and other mental health services develop guidelines and staff training programs to resolve this defect, but that's a process that needs to be started by someone in a leadership position at the hotline or other organization.


In addition to the obvious "do research on MAPs," researchers are in a unique position to support MAPs and the MAP community. Interacting with the community by joining support groups and engaging in MAP discourse as an ally is a great way to do this, and also provides additional insight into the intricacies of the community that may not be obvious from MAPs' responses to online surveys. Additionally, researchers can play an important role in MAP activism due to their intimate knowledge of existing scientific literature on pedophilia. Making new research on MAPs available to friends and family members of MAPs, mental health professionals, and the general public allows more people to learn about this important topic and its connections to mental health and CSA prevention.


Due to the wide variety of topics covered by the media, there are numerous ways journalists can integrate more accurate, non-stigmatizing information about MAPs into their content. The most basic of these is simply using accurate terminology, something CSA prevention experts strongly recommend, as it could actually help reduce rates of child abuse. When focusing on abuse-specific topics, getting input from child protection organizations that base their work on the research surrounding minor attractions rather than appealing to stereotypes about pedophiles is another great way to ensure accuracy.

Journalists can also go a step further by talking about the MAP community itself and the role it plays in CSA prevention. Some MAP-focused organizations and support groups are open to providing interviews about their work, and some may even be willing to help reporters find specific MAPs who can share stories about their personal experience with their attractions. While there is also the option to seek out MAPs in the community without the help of any organization or group, this can be problematic, as trolls have a history of pretending to be a MAP in order to cast the community in a negative light. Be sure to find a MAP who is well-known in the community and can be vouched for by other respected community members.

Journalists who are interested in learning more about MAP Resources can get in touch using the contact information on our About page.